Robert Indiana
Robert Indiana (1928 - 2018) was born Robert Clark in New Castle, Indiana. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Maine and Edinburgh University and the Edinburgh College of Art before settling in New York in 1954 and becoming a leading exponent of Pop Art. He achieved global recognition for paintings and prints featuring geometric shapes emblazoned with lettering and vivid colours. His most famous image, LOVE, first lettered on canvas in 1965, became a universal symbol for the hippie generation. He has collaborated with Andy Warhol and is a leading Pop Figure in modern art culture, with his works as part of the most prestigious public collections in the world.

Viewing 1 works by Robert Indiana


Robert Indiana: Beyond Love / Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

Robert Indiana, Fernando Botero

Robert Indiana: A Map of Indiana

Robert Indiana



Robert Indiana, one of the most pre-eminent figures in American art since the 1960s, has played a central role in the development of assemblage art, hard-edge painting and Pop Art. A self-proclaimed “American Painter of Signs,” Indiana has created a highly original body of work that explores American identity, personal history and the power of abstraction and language, establishing an important legacy that resonates in the work of many contemporary artists who make the written word a central element of their oeuvre.

Robert Indiana was born Robert Clark in New Castle, Indiana on September 13, 1928. Adopted as an infant, he spent his childhood moving frequently throughout his namesake state. His artistic talent was evident at an early age, and its recognition by a first grade teacher encouraged his decision to become an artist. In 1942, Indiana moved to Indianapolis in order to attend Arsenal Technical High School, known for its strong arts curriculum. After graduating he spent three years in the U.S. Air Force and then studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Skowhegan School of Sculpture and Painting in Maine, and the Edinburgh College of Art in Scotland.

In 1956, two years after moving to New York, Indiana met Ellsworth Kelly, and upon his recommendation took up residence in Coenties Slip - once a major port on the southeast tip of Manhattan. There he joined a community of artists that would come to include Kelly, Agnes Martin, James Rosenquist and Jack Youngerman. The environment of the Slip had a profound impact on Indiana’s work, and his early paintings include a series of hard-edge double gingko leaves inspired by the trees which grew in nearby Jeannette Park. He also incorporated the gingko form into his 19-foot mural Stavrosis (1958), a crucifixion pieced together from forty-four sheets of paper that he found in his loft. It was upon completion of this work that Indiana adopted the name of his native state as his own.

Indiana, like some of his fellow artists, scavenged the area’s abandoned warehouses for materials, creating sculptural assemblages from old wooden beams, rusted metal wheels and other remnants of the shipping trade that had thrived in Coenties Slip. While he created hanging works such as Jeanne d’Arc (1960) and Wall of China (1960), the majority were freestanding constructions which Indiana called “herms” after the sculptures that served as boundary markers at crossroads in ancient Greece and Rome. The discovery of 19th century brass stencils led to the incorporation of brightly colored numbers and short emotionally charged words onto these sculptures as well as canvases, and became the basis of his new painterly vocabulary.

Indiana quickly gained repute as one of the most creative artists of his generation, and was featured in influential New York shows such as New Forms - New Media at the Martha Jackson Gallery (1960), Art of Assemblage at the Museum of Modern Art (1961), and The New Realists at the Sidney Janis Gallery (1962). In 1961, the Museum of Modern Art acquired The American Dream, I (1961), the first in a series of paintings exploring the illusory American Dream, establishing Indiana as one of the most significant members of the new generation of Pop artists who were eclipsing the prominent painters of the New York School.

Although acknowledged as a leader of Pop, Indiana distinguished himself from his Pop peers by addressing important social and political issues and incorporating profound historical and literary references into his works. American literary references appear in paintings such as The Calumet (1961) and Melville (1961), exhibited in 1962 in Indiana’s first New York solo exhibition, held at Eleanor Ward’s Stable Gallery. In 1964, Indiana accepted Philip Johnson’s invitation to design new work for the New York State Pavilion at the New York World’s Fair, creating a 20-foot EAT sign composed of flashing lights, and collaborated with Andy Warhol on the film 'Eat', a silent portrait of Indiana eating a mushroom in his Coenties Slip studio. His first European solo exhibition took place in 1966 at Galerie Schmela in Düsseldorf, Germany, and featured his Numbers (1965), a series of paintings on a theme that he has explored in various formats throughout his career.

1966 marked a turning point in Indiana’s career with the success of his LOVE image, which had been featured in a solo exhibition at the Stable Gallery. The word 'Love', a theme central to Indiana’s work, first appeared in the painting Four Star Love (1961). Love is a subject of great spiritual significance for the artist, illustrated by the painting Love Is God (1964), which was inspired by an inscription in the Christian Science churches he attended in his youth. Initially experimenting with a composition of stacked letters in a series of 1964 rubbings, Indiana subsequently turned this inventive design, a formal departure from his previous works, into different hard-edged color variations on canvas. Indiana’s LOVE, selected by the Museum of Modern Art in 1965 for their Christmas card, quickly permeated wider popular culture, and was adopted as an emblem of the “Love Generation.” Appearing on a best-selling United States Postal Service stamp (1973) and reproduced on countless unauthorized products, the proliferation of the image led, on one hand, to negative criticism and incorrect assumptions of the artist as a sell-out. However, the image’s popularity more importantly emphasizes its great resonance with large and diverse audiences and has become an icon of modern art. The universality of the subject, to which Indiana continues to return, is further evidenced by his translation of LOVE into AHAVA (Hebrew) and AMOR (Spanish).

In 1978, Indiana chose to remove himself from the New York art world. He settled on the remote island of Vinalhaven in Maine, moving into the Star of Hope, a Victorian building that had previously served as an Odd Fellows Lodge. After a period spent setting up his home and new studio, Indiana turned to themes that related to his local experience, working on a suite of eighteen large-scale paintings known as The Hartley Elegies (1989-94), inspired by the German Officer paintings of Marsden Hartley, who lived on Vinalhaven in the summer of 1938. He also used found objects to create sculptures such as Ash (1985) and Mars (1990), works that reflected his new surroundings while also making reference to his past, and returned to and expanded upon his seminal American Dream series, completing The Ninth American Dream in 2001.

In addition to being a painter and sculptor, Indiana has created a significant number of prints, among them the Numbers Portfolio (1968), a collaboration with the poet Robert Creeley, as well as many other works of graphic art, including the poster for the opening of the New York State Theater, Lincoln Center (1964), and the poster for the opening exhibition of the Hirshhorn Museum of Art (1974). He designed the stage sets and costumes for the Virgil Thompson and Gertrude Stein opera The Mother of Us All, which was presented in 1967 at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis and expanded in 1976 for the Santa Fe Opera in honor of the Bicentennial. Indiana has also created other unique projects, such as the design for a basketball court at the Milwaukee Exposition Convention Center Arena in 1977.

Indiana’s artwork has been featured in numerous solo and group exhibitions around the world, and his works are in the permanent collections of important museums such as the Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, the National Gallery of Art, the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden and the Smithsonian Museum of American Art in Washington, D.C., the Ablright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Menil Collection in Houston, Texas, the Currier Museum of Art, Manchester, New Hampshire, the Museum Ludwig in Cologne, Germany, the Stedelijk van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven, Netherlands, the Museum Ludwig in Vienna, Austria, the Shanghai Art Museum in China, and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. He has also been included in numerous international publications, and is the subject of a number of monographs.

Public Collections

Albright-Knox Gallery of Art, Buffalo, New York
Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, Connecticut
Allentown Museum of Art, Pennsylvania
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Canada
Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago
Baltimore Museum of Art, Maryland
Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburgh
Currier Museum of Art, New Hampshire
Delaware Art Museum, Wilmington
Detroit Institute of Art, Michigan
Farnworth Museum, Rockland, Maine
Fonds National d’Art Contemporain, France
Hirshorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Indiana University Art Museum, Bloomington
Indiana State Museum, Indianapolis, Indiana
Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, Indiana
Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Israel Museum, Jerusalem
Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art, the University of Texas at Austin
Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld, Germany
Krannert Art Museum, Champaign Illinois
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California
Louisiana Museum, Humlebaek, Denmark
McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Texas
Menil Collection, Houston, Texas
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Germany
Ludwig Forum für Internationale Kunst, Aachen, Germany
Museum moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien, Vienna, Austria
Museum of Modern Art, New York
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
New Orleans Museum of Art, Louisiana
Portland Museum of Art, Maine
Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California
Scottsdale Museum of Contemporary Art, Scottsdale, Arizona
Shanghai Art Museum, China
Sheldon Museum of Art, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Sintra Museu de Arte Moderna, Portugal
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.
Stedelijk Museum Schiedam, The Netherlands
Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Tel-Aviv Museum of Art, Israel
The Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, London, England
Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York



Selected Exhibitions

Galerie Gmurzynska, New York, LOVE Is in the Air
Kulturforum, Berlin, Pop on Paper: From Warhol to Lichtenstein
Museum Ludwig, Cologne, Mapping the Collection

Kasmin Sculpture Garden, New York, Robert Indiana
Richmond Art Museum, Indiana, Robert Indiana: The Richmond Connection
Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Life is a Highway: Art and American Car Culture

Paul Kasmin Gallery, New York, Robert Indiana
Asia Society, Hong Kong, Love Long: Robert Indiana and Asia
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, Robert Indiana: A Sculpture Retrospective
Contemporary Art Foundation, Tokyo, Love & Peace: Robert Indiana Memorial Exhibition

Pinacoteca Comunale Casa Rusca, Locarno, Switzerland, Robert Indiana
The Menil Collection, Houston, Between Land and Sea: Artists of the Coenties Slip
Glass House, New Canaan, Connecticut, Robert Indiana: One Through Zero

Galleria d'Arte Maggiore G.A.M., Bologna, Italy, Robert Indiana
State Russian Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, Robert Indiana: To Russia with Love
Opera Gallery, Singapore, Masters of Distinction
Stedelijk Museum 's-Hertogenbosch, 's-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands, Cult

Craig F. Starr Gallery, New York, Robert Indiana: Sign Paintings 1960–65
Philadelphia Museum of Art, AMOR by Robert Indiana
Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, Pop Art Design

McNay Art Museum, San Antonio, Robert Indiana: The Mother Of Us All
Farnsworth Art Museum, Rockland, Maine, Celebrating Love!
Galerie Gmurzynska, Zug, Switzerland, Robert Indiana

Pop Art Accrochage, Fluegel-Roncak Gallery, Nuremberg, Germany 
All You Need IS LOVE - Mori Art Museum, Tokyo 
The Pop Object: The Still Life Tradition in Pop Art - Acquavella Galleries, Inc., New York City, NY 
Now Here is also Nowhere: Part II - Henry Art Gallery, Seattle, WA 
Bal Harbour - Rosenbaum Contemporary, Boca Raton, FL
"Robert Indiana: Beyond LOVE", Retrospective by the Whitney Museum of American Art

Hope - Contini Galleria d´Arte, Venice 
Robert Indiana: Sculptures - Waddington Custot Galleries, London (England) 
Robert Indiana: New & Classic Works - Rosenbaum Contemporary, Boca Raton, FL

Robert Indiana: Rare Works from 1959 on Coenties Slip - Galerie Gmurzynska - Zürich, Zurich

Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL

Robert Indiana and the Star of Hope - Farnsworth Art Museum, Rockland, ME (solo)
Sculpture: Post-War to Present - Maxwell Davidson Gallery, New York City, NY
Von Picasso bis Warhol, Künstlerschmuck der Avantgarde - Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Cologne

Pressing Issues, Des Moines Art center, Des Moines, IA 
Pop and Op, Nassau County Museum of Art, Roslyn Harbor, NY

Art Market Now, The Columns, Seoul, South Korea

Life as a Legend - Marilyn Monroe, Boca Raton Museum of Art, Boca Raton, FL

Made in USA – ausgewählte Graphik, Galerie & Edition Bode GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany 
Summer of Love Art of the Psychedelic Era, Tate Liverpool, Liverpool, UK 
Do it yourself - Positionen von den sechziger Jahren bis Heute, Hamburger Bahnhof, Museum für Gegenwart, Berlin, Germany 
40 Jahre Galerie Thomas, Galerie Thomas, Munich, Germany

Robert Indiana 66: Paintings and Sculpture, Price Tower Arts Center's, Bartlesville, OK

Letters, Words and Numbers, L & M Gallery, New York, NY

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